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What constitutes maintenance?
[Savitaben Somabhai Bhatiya v State of Gujarat and Others (2005)]
Under Indian law, the term ‘maintenance’ includes an entitlement to food, clothing and shelter, being typically available to the wife, children and parents. It is a measure of social justice and an outcome of the natural duty of a man to maintain his wife, children and parents, when they are unable to maintain themselves. (Courts have now moved towards a broader interpretation of “wife” to include women in relationships in the nature of marriage, or live-in relationships that satisfy certain conditions.)
Maintenance includes provision for residence
[Komalam Amma vs. Kumara Pillai Raghavan Pillai and Others (2008)]
In a case decided on 14 November 2008, the Supreme Court ruled that maintenance necessarily encompasses a provision for residence and therefore ordered that the woman be provided with a residential facility similar to that which she had been accustomed in the past.
Maintenance claimed under section 125 CrPC applies to all religions, castes and creeds
[Mohd Ahmed Khan v Shah Bano Begum and Others (1985)]
Maintenance can be claimed under the respective personal laws of people following different faiths and proceedings under such personal laws are civil in nature, but proceedings initiated under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code, however, are of a summary nature and apply to everyone regardless of caste, creed or religion.
‘Moral claim to support’
[Chaturbhuj v Sita Bai (2008)]
The object of proceedings under section 125 CrPC is not to punish a person for his past neglect. This provision has been enacted to prevent vagrancy by compelling those who can provide support to those who are unable to support themselves and have a moral claim to support. (This ‘moral claim to support’ now extends to women in ‘relationships in the nature of marriage’)
What constitutes a ‘relationship in the nature of marriage’?
[D Velusamy Vs D Patchaiammal, (SC, 2010)]
“In our opinion a relationship in the nature of marriage’ is akin to a common law marriage. Common law marriages require that although not being formally married- the couple must hold themselves out to society as being akin to spouses; they must be of legal age to marry; they must be otherwise qualified to enter into a legal marriage, including being unmarried; they must have voluntarily cohabited and held themselves out to the world as being akin to spouses for a significant period of time…If a man has akeep’ whom he maintains financially and uses mainly for sexual purpose and/or as a servant it would not, in our opinion, be a relationship in the nature of marriage.”
relationship in the nature of marriage’ is akin to a common law marriage. Common law marriages require that although not being formally married- the couple must hold themselves out to society as being akin to spouses; they must be of legal age to marry; they must be otherwise qualified to enter into a legal marriage, including being unmarried; they must have voluntarily cohabited and held themselves out to the world as being akin to spouses for a significant period of time…If a man has a
The Bench said though Indian laws may not permit it yet, there was no reason why such benefit should not be extended to a live-in-partner and cited the ruling of a Californian court in the US which had ordered similar relief by invoking the doctrine of “palimony.”
“You had spent 14 years with her. She lost her youth but you do not want to pay anything to her. She might not have been legally married to you but you have an obligation,” Justice Katju, heading the Bench, told Counsel Harish Kumar T appearing for D Velusamy.
[In an otherwise progressive judgment, which does need to go further to include every live-in relationship, use of the word ‘keep’ by the judges led lawyer Indira Jaising criticizing the Bench. She requested the Court to desist from using gender sensitive words while passing judgments. She told the bench of Justices Katju and Thakur that she would move an application to expunge the word ‘keep’ from the judgment. She questioned ‘how can the Supreme Court of India use the word ‘keep’ in the 21st century?’ Justice Thakur asked Indira Jaising “whether the expression ‘concubine’ would have been more appropriate than the word ‘keep’?”]
A Supreme Court Bench of Justice GS Singhvi and Justice AK Ganguly, while referring a similar matter [Chanmuniya v Virendra Kumar Singh & Another (2011 Crl. L.J. 96)] to the Chief Justice of India, had also opined that “…a broad and expansive interpretation should be given to the term ‘wife’ to include even those cases where a man and woman have been living together as husband and wife for a reasonably long period of time, and strict proof of marriage should not be a pre-condition for maintenance under Section 125 of the CrPC, so as to fulfill the true spirit and essence of the beneficial provision of maintenance under Section 125. We also believe that such an interpretation would be a just application of the principles enshrined in the Preamble to our Constitution, namely, social justice and upholding the dignity of the individual”.
Woman duped into marrying an already married man entitled to maintenance
[Narinder Pal Kaur Chawla vs. M S Chawla (2008)]
In a recent case decided by the Delhi High Court, it was held that where a couple had lived like a married couple for 14 years and where the man had concealed the fact that he was already married, and further that where the woman had taken the responsibility of running the household as a housewife, treated the man as her husband and had borne and bred two of his children, the woman should not be deprived of her right to maintenance under the personal law applicable to Hindus. The Court further said that denial of maintenance under such circumstances would amount to putting a premium on or rewarding the man for defrauding the woman by concealing his first marriage. It was further recorded that for the purpose of granting maintenance under the personal law, a woman placed in the position of second wife can be treated as a legally wedded wives and is entitled to maintenance.
I am a former bureaucrat, and have worked a lot on gender issues, disaster management
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Women’s Web, I think this comment is meant for you!!
Please tell me, on verbal agreement of joining within 2 months of order passed, I was made to give consent statement for maintenance under 125 crpc in Sep 2012, not living together since Dec 2009. I feel strangled and cheated. How to reverse the order.
Will I be able to ask for maintenance if my husband moves abroad for job/studies and is not around in India for a long time.
Just wanted to check if women can ask maintenance for at least kids when she is also working but she has to take care of two kids under her custody and kids wants to live with her preferably. PL SUGGEST!
i love my child but my wife has left with my child and nor there parent has ask why she has left and we have discuss these matter in kerala Nair Soceity but we fail to bring her on compromise and allowing to talk with child and we are planning for divorce and she doesnt have we have demanded for divorce she told she dont have money for divorce guide me this matter at least i can talk and get my child back
my brother has a long standing affair, now his ‘keep’ wants him to give his wife of two children divorce, i want to ask what his wife is entitled to and is the keep valids if she forcefully wants my bro’s wife to give him divorce
I am working and have two kids 3 and 1 yr .my husband first physically abandoned me for one and half yr then again after he cohabited with me for a day and second kid was born and again he abandoned me since the birth of second kidthat is more than one and half yr.I want to take divorce.what can be the grounds.whether court will ask from kids for custody…
I am not married to my daughter’s father we were in live in. We together planned a baby but after baby birth my baby father left me and baby and said I can’t marry you. And blocked me from everywhere. I was all alone during delivery . Now my daughter is 1.2yrs old and it really hurt me the he dumped. He is an army officer and I came to know he is getting married soon. He is very manipulative kind of man. Don’t know what his intention was with me. Now I want to write letter to army headqater but I don’t know the procedure or anything. Totally confused what should I do?
Here is what you need to do right away.
1. Prepare a detailed draft of everything that happened between you two right from the begining.
2. Attach as much evidence as it is possible such as, photos, voice recordings, videos, gifts, greeting cards, your child’s birth certificate etc etc….
3. Now, work on this draft that you had prepared and carefully finalize it taking your time. Don’t be in a hurry and study it a thousand times before finalizing it.
4. Now, you have finalized the draft and you have all the evidence that you possibly could gather.
5. This letter along with evidence has to be sent to the following authorities as under;
a. Chairperson, National Women’s Commission (NCW)
b. Chairman, National Authority for Legal Services Authority (NALSA)
c. President of India
d. Chairman, National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)
DON’T SEND YOUR REPRESENTATION OR ANY KIND OF COMMUNICATION TO ANY POLITICIAN OR ARMY AUTHORITIES INCLUDING CHIEF OF ARMY STAFF.
I am mentioning this because, the Chief of Army Staff will try to protect this officer who works under his command.
A politician will immediately contact this officer and demand or extract some money from him and send thugs to murder you.
NALSA will respond back to you and provide you free legal services like a Lawyer or Advocate and all legal services for you would be free. Here expenses for your legal battle will be taken care of. NHRC and NCW will directly contact the Chief of Army Staff and ask for a detailed report from them. Chief of Army Staff has to conduct an inquiry and submit to NHRC as well as NCW. This way you get empowered and the officer will not be able to give any kind of trouble to you. Contact me if you need any further assistance.
Take care of you child
Thanks and best of luck
If possible file a police complaint against the officer who dumped if you have sufficient evidence.
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